Manual Chapter : Setting Up IPsec To Use NAT Traversal on One Side of the WAN

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Manual Chapter

Setting Up IPsec To Use NAT Traversal on One Side of the WAN

Overview: Setting up IPsec to use NAT traversal on one side of the WAN

When you are using IPsec to secure WAN traffic, you can set up an IPsec tunnel with NAT traversal (NAT-T) to get around a firewall or other NAT device. This implementation describes how to set up the IPsec tunnel when you have a NAT device on one side of the tunnel.
The following illustration shows a network configuration with a firewall (NAT device) on one side of the WAN.
Example of an IPsec deployment with NAT-T on one side of the WAN
Example of an IPsec deployment with NAT-T on one side of the WAN

Before you begin IPsec configuration

Before you configure IPsec on a BIG-IP® device, make sure that you have completed the following general prerequisites.
  • You must have an existing routed IP network between the two locations where the BIG-IP devices will be installed.
  • The BIG-IP hardware is installed with an initial network configuration applied.
  • The management IP address is configured on the BIG-IP system.
  • If you are using NAT traversal, forward UDP ports 500 and 4500 to the BIG-IP system behind each firewall.
  • Verify the connectivity between the client or server and its BIG-IP device, and between each BIG-IP device and its gateway. You can use
    ping
    to test connectivity.

Task summary

When you are configuring an IPsec tunnel, you must repeat the configuration tasks on the BIG-IP systems on both sides of the WAN.

Task list

Creating a forwarding virtual server for IPsec

For IPsec, you create a forwarding (IP) type of virtual server to intercept IP traffic and direct it over the tunnel. With a forwarding (IP) virtual server, destination address translation and port translation are disabled.
  1. On the Main tab, click
    Local Traffic
    Virtual Servers
    .
    The Virtual Server List screen opens.
  2. Click
    Create
    .
    The New Virtual Server screen opens.
  3. In the
    Name
    field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
  4. From the
    Type
    list, select
    Forwarding (IP)
    .
  5. In the
    Destination Address
    field, type a wildcard network address in CIDR format, such as
    0.0.0.0/0
    for IPv4 or
    ::/0
    for IPv6, to accept any traffic.
  6. From the
    Service Port
    list, select
    *All Ports
    .
  7. From the
    Protocol
    list, select
    *All Protocols
    .
  8. From the
    VLAN and Tunnel Traffic
    list, retain the default selection,
    All VLANs and Tunnels
    .
  9. Click
    Finished
    .

Creating an IPsec tunnel with NAT-T on one side

You can create an IPsec tunnel to securely transport application traffic across the WAN. You must configure an IPsec tunnel on the BIG-IP systems on both sides of the WAN.
When you create an IKEv1 or IKEv2 peer for NAT traversal (NAT-T), the key configuration detail is that the
Remote Address
setting you configure on the BIG-IP system behind the firewall or other NAT device is the public IP address of the NAT device (not the IP address of the remote BIG-IP system). You can customize the remaining settings to conform to your network.
For the IKE peer negotiations to be successful, the IKE Phase 1 settings (on the IKE peer) and IKE Phase 2 settings (in the IPsec policy) must be the same on the BIG-IP systems at both ends of the IPsec tunnel.
You must perform this procedure twice, once on each BIG-IP system on either side of the WAN. For each step in the procedure where you need to type an IP address, the step shows two sample IP addresses -- one that you configure on the BIG-IP system located in Site A and the other that you configure on the BIG-IP system located in Site B.
  1. Create an IKE peer that specifies the other end of the IPsec tunnel.
    1. On the Main tab, click
      Network
      IPsec
      IKE Peers
      .
    2. Click the
      Create
      button.
    3. In the
      Name
      field, type a unique name for the IKE peer.
    4. In the
      Remote Address
      field, type the IP address of the remote peer.
      If the remote BIG-IP system is behind a firewall or other NAT device, type the public IP address of that device.
      If the remote BIG-IP system is reachable directly, type the IP address of the BIG-IP system.
      This address must match the value of the
      Tunnel Remote Address
      of the remote site setting in the relevant IPsec policy.
      For example, on Site A, you specify the translation address for the BIG-IP system in Site B. The BIG-IP system in Site B is behind the NAT device. Here are the peer remote addresses that you would configure on the BIG-IP systems in Site A and Site B, according to the previous illustration.
      Location
      Remote (Peer) Address
      Site A
      165.160.15.20
      Site B
      198.50.100.3
      This screen snippet shows the peer
      Remote Address
      setting at Site A. Screen showing Site A Remote Address setting
    5. For the IKE Phase 1 Algorithms area, retain the default values, or select the options that are appropriate for your deployment.
    6. For the IKE Phase 1 Credentials area, for the
      Authentication Method
      setting, select either
      Preshared Key
      or
      RSA Signature
      , and specify additional information in the fields that appear.
      For example, if you select
      Preshared Key
      , type the key in the
      Preshared Key
      field that becomes available.
      In this example,
      Preshared Key
      is selected.
      IKE Phase 1 Preshared Key setting example
      The key you type must be the same at both ends of the tunnel.
    7. From the
      NAT Traversal
      list, select
      On
      , for Site A's IKE peer only.
      Use this setting only for the IKE peer (remote BIG-IP system) that is behind a NAT device. On the Site B BIG-IP system, for the IKE peer, retain the default setting,
      Off
      .
      NAT Traversal setting example
    8. Click
      Finished
      .
  2. Create a custom IPsec policy that uses Tunnel mode and has the same remote IP address as the IKE peer.
    1. On the Main tab, click
      Network
      IPsec
      IPsec Policies
      .
    2. Click the
      Create
      button.
    3. In the
      Name
      field, type a unique name for the policy.
    4. For the
      IPsec Protocol
      setting, retain the default selection,
      ESP
      .
    5. From the
      Mode
      list, select
      Tunnel
      .
      The screen refreshes to show additional related settings.
    6. In the
      Tunnel Local Address
      field, type the local IP address of the system you are configuring.
      For example, the tunnel local addresses that you configure on the BIG-IP systems in Site A and Site B are as follows.
      Location
      Tunnel Local Address
      Site A
      198.50.100.3
      Site B
      10.102.20.5
    7. In the
      Tunnel Remote Address
      field, type the IP address of the remote peer.
      If the remote BIG-IP system is behind a NAT device, type the public IP address of that device.
      If the remote BIG-IP system is reachable directly, type the IP address of the remote BIG-IP system.
      This address must match the value of the
      Remote Address
      setting in the relevant IKE peer.
      Based on the sample configuration in the implementation overview, the tunnel remote addresses that you configure on the BIG-IP systems in Site A and Site B are as follows.
      Location
      Tunnel Remote Address
      Site A
      165.160.15.20
      Site B
      198.50.100.3
      This screen snippet shows the tunnel settings at Site A.
      Example of tunnel settings at Site A
    8. For the
      Authentication Algorithm
      setting, retain the default value, or select the algorithm appropriate for your deployment.
    9. For the
      Encryption Algorithm
      setting, retain the default value, or select the algorithm appropriate for your deployment.
    10. For the
      Perfect Forward Secrecy
      setting, retain the default value, or select the option appropriate for your deployment.
    11. Click
      Finished
      .
  3. Create a bidirectional traffic selector that uses the custom IPsec policy you created.
    The traffic selector filters the application traffic based on the source and destination IP addresses you specify.
    1. On the Main tab, click
      Network
      IPsec
      Traffic Selectors
      .
    2. Click
      Create
      .
    3. In the
      Name
      field, type a unique name for the traffic selector.
    4. For the
      Order
      setting, retain the default value.
    5. For the
      Source IP Address
      setting, in the
      Address
      field, type the IP address from which the application traffic originates.
      In the illustration the source IP addresses that you configure on the BIG-IP systems in Site A and Site B are as follows.
      Location
      Source IP Address
      Site A
      10.100.20.50
      Site B
      10.102.20.10
    6. For the
      Destination IP Address
      setting, in the
      Address
      field, type the final IP address for which the application traffic is destined.
      In the illustration, the destination IP addresses that you configure on the BIG-IP systems in Site A and Site B are as follows.
      Location
      Destination IP Address
      Site A
      10.102.20.10
      Site B
      10.100.20.50
    7. For the
      Action
      setting, retain the default value,
      Protect
      .
    8. From the
      IPsec Policy Name
      list, select the name of the custom IPsec policy that you just created.
      This screen snippet is an example of the completed Traffic Selector screen at Site A. Example of completed Traffic Selector screen
    9. Click
      Finished
      .
  4. Repeat this task on the BIG-IP system on the other side of the WAN.
After doing this task on each BIG-IP system in the configuration, you have created an IPsec tunnel through which traffic travels in both directions across the WAN, and through a firewall on one side.

Verifying IPsec connectivity for Tunnel mode

After you have configured an IPsec tunnel and before you configure additional functionality, you can verify that the tunnel is passing traffic.
Only data traffic matching the traffic selector triggers the establishment of the tunnel.
  1. Access the
    tmsh
    command-line utility.
  2. Before sending traffic, type this command at the prompt.
    tmsh modify net ipsec ike-daemon ikedaemon log-level debug
    This command increases the logging level to display the messages that you want to view.
  3. Send data traffic to the destination IP address specified in the traffic selector.
  4. For an IKEv1 configuration, check the IKE Phase 1 negotiation status by typing this command at the prompt.
    racoonctl -l show-sa isakmp
    This example shows a result of the command.
    Destination
    is the tunnel remote IP address.
    Destination Cookies ST S V E Created Phase2 165.160.15.20.500 98993e6 . . . 22c87f1 9 I 10 M 2012-06-27 16:51:19 1
    This table shows the legend for interpreting the result.
    Column
    Displayed
    Description
    ST (Tunnel Status)
    1
    Start Phase 1 negotiation
    2
    msg 1 received
    3
    msg 1 sent
    4
    msg 2 received
    5
    msg 2 sent
    6
    msg 3 received
    7
    msg 3 sent
    8
    msg 4 received
    9
    isakmp tunnel established
    10
    isakmp tunnel expired
    S
    I
    Initiator
    R
    Responder
    V (Version Number)
    10
    ISAKMP version 1.0
    E (Exchange Mode)
    M
    Main (Identity Protection)
    A
    Aggressive
    Phase2
    <n>
    Number of Phase 2 tunnels negotiated with this IKE peer
  5. For an IKEv1 configuration, check the IKE Phase 2 negotiation status by typing this command at the prompt.
    racoonctl -ll show-sa internal
    This example shows a result of this command.
    Source
    is the tunnel local IP address.
    Destination
    is the tunnel remote IP address.
    Source Destination Status Side 10.100.20.3 165.160.15.20 sa established [R]
    This table shows the legend for interpreting the result.
    Column
    Displayed
    Side
    I (Initiator)
    R (Responder)
    Status
    init
    start
    acquire
    getspi sent
    getspi done
    1st msg sent
    1st msg recvd
    commit bit
    sa added
    sa established
    sa expired
  6. To verify the establishment of dynamic negotiated Security Associations (SAs), type this command at the prompt.
    tmsh show net ipsec ipsec-sa
    For each tunnel, the output displays IP addresses for two IPsec SAs, one for each direction, as shown in the example.
    IPsec::SecurityAssociations 10.100.20.3 -> 165.160.15.20 SPI(0x7b438626) in esp (tmm: 6) 165.160.15.20 -> 10.100.20.3 SPI(0x5e52a1db) out esp (tmm: 5)
  7. To display the details of the dynamic negotiated Security Associations (SAs), type this command at the prompt.
    tmsh show net ipsec ipsec-sa all-properties
    For each tunnel, the output displays the details for the IPsec SAs, as shown in the example.
    IPsec::SecurityAssociations 165.160.15.20 -> 10.100.20.3 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- tmm: 2 Direction: out; SPI: 0x6be3ff01(1810104065); ReqID: 0x9b0a(39690) Protocol: esp; Mode: tunnel; State: mature Authenticated Encryption : aes-gmac128 Current Usage: 307488 bytes Hard lifetime: 94 seconds; unlimited bytes Soft lifetime: 34 seconds; unlimited bytes Replay window size: 64 Last use: 12/13/2012:10:42 Create: 12/13/2012:10:39
  8. To display the details of the IKE-negotiated SAs (IKEv2), type this command at the prompt.
    tmsh show net ipsec ike-sa all-properties
  9. To filter the Security Associations (SAs) by traffic selector, type this command at the prompt.
    tmsh show net ipsec ipsec-sa traffic-selector ts_codec
    You can also filter by other parameters, such as SPI (
    spi
    ), source address (
    src_addr
    ), or destination address (
    dst_addr
    )
    The output displays the IPsec SAs that area associated with the traffic selector specified, as shown in the example.
    IPsec::SecurityAssociations 10.100.115.12 -> 10.100.15.132 SPI(0x2211c0a9) in esp (tmm: 0) 10.100.15.132 -> 10.100.115.12 SPI(0x932e0c44) out esp (tmm: 2)
  10. Check the IPsec stats by typing this command at the prompt.
    tmsh show net ipsec-stat
    If traffic is passing through the IPsec tunnel, the stats will increment.
    ------------------------------------------------------------------- Net::Ipsec Cmd Id Mode Packets In Bytes In Packets Out Bytes Out ------------------------------------------------------------------- 0 TRANSPORT 0 0 0 0 0 TRANSPORT 0 0 0 0 0 TUNNEL 0 0 0 0 0 TUNNEL 0 0 0 0 1 TUNNEL 353.9K 252.4M 24.9K 1.8M 2 TUNNEL 117.9K 41.0M 163.3K 12.4M
  11. If the SAs are established, but traffic is not passing, type one of these commands at the prompt.


    tmsh delete net ipsec ipsec-sa (IKEv1)


    tmsh delete net ipsec ike-sa (IKEv2)

    This action deletes the IPsec tunnels. Sending new traffic triggers SA negotiation and establishment.
  12. If traffic is still not passing, type this command at the prompt.
    racoonctl flush-sa isakmp
    This action brings down the control channel. Sending new traffic triggers SA negotiation and establishment.
  13. View the
    /var/log/racoon.log
    to verify that the IPsec tunnel is up.
    These lines are examples of the messages you are looking for.
    2012-06-29 16:45:13: INFO: ISAKMP-SA established 10.100.20.3[500]-165.160.15.20[500] spi:3840191bd045fa51:673828cf6adc5c61 2012-06-29 16:45:14: INFO: initiate new phase 2 negotiation: 10.100.20.3[500]<=>165.160.15.20[500] 2012-06-29 16:45:14: INFO: IPsec-SA established: ESP/Tunnel 165.160.15.20[0]->10.100.20.3[0] spi=2403416622(0x8f413a2e) 2012-06-29 16:45:14: INFO: IPsec-SA established: ESP/Tunnel 10.100.20.3[0]->165.160.15.20[0] spi=4573766(0x45ca46
  14. To turn on IKEv2 logging on a production build, complete these steps.
    If you are using IKEv2, you can skip these steps; the BIG-IP system enables IPsec logging by default.
    1. Configure the log publisher for IPsec to use.
      % tmsh create sys log-config publisher ipsec { destinations add { local-syslog }} % tmsh list sys log-config publisher ipsec sys log-config publisher ipsec { destinations { local-syslog { } } }
    2. Attach the log publisher to the
      ike-daemon
      object.
      tmsh modify net ipsec ike-daemon ikedaemon log-publisher ipsec
  15. For protocol-level troubleshooting, you can increase the debug level by typing this command at the prompt.
    tmsh modify net ipsec ike-daemon ikedaemon log-level debug2
    Use this command only for debugging. It creates a large log file, and can slow the tunnel negotiation.
    Using this command flushes existing SAs.
  16. After you view the results, return the debug level to normal to avoid excessive logging by typing this command at the prompt.
    tmsh modify net ipsec ike-daemon ikedaemon log-level info
    Using this command flushes existing SAs.